Relative Effectiveness of Conditional and Unconditional Cash Transfers for Schooling Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

Key Information

Authors

Baird, Sarah; Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Ozler, Berk; Woolcock, Michael

Year published

2013

Study type

Journal article

Countries in analysis

  • Argentina
  • Bangladesh
  • Bolivia, Plurinational State of
  • Brazil
  • Burkina Faso
  • Cambodia
  • Chile
  • China
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • El Salvador
  • Honduras
  • Indonesia
  • Jamaica
  • Kenya
  • Malawi
  • Mexico
  • Morocco
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • South Africa
  • Turkey
  • Uruguay
  • Zimbabwe

Subnational

The study is subnational.

Participants

  • Boys (both in school and out of school)
  • Girls (both in school and out of school)

Population description

This analysis is restricted to low and middle-income countries (as defined by the World Bank), where the majority of schooling CCT and UCT programs are implemented, with no other explicit population exclusion criteria. The population of focus in this study is those targeted by either UCT or schooling CCT programs. Schooling CCT programs typically, although not exclusively, target poor families with school-aged children, while UCT programs generally target a broader spectrum of the poor population. Thus, the entire set of eligible interventions is largely targeted at disadvantaged populations. Outcome variables are restricted to children of ages 5-22 to cover impacts related to primary and secondary school education, including vocational training. Early childhood development and higher education outcomes are beyond the scope of this review. (pg 17-18)

Age range

5 - 22

Analysis type

Meta-analysis / Systematic review

Approaches and Outcomes

  • Conditional cash transfers (including non-cash goods) to individuals/households / Increased enrolment in primary school
  • Conditional cash transfers (including non-cash goods) to individuals/households / Increased school enrolment (general)
  • Conditional cash transfers (including non-cash goods) to individuals/households / Increased school enrolment (general)
  • Conditional cash transfers (including non-cash goods) to individuals/households / Increased school enrolment (general)
  • Conditional cash transfers (including non-cash goods) to individuals/households / Increased secondary school enrolment
  • Conditional cash transfers (including non-cash goods) to individuals/households / Increased test scores
  • Conditional cash transfers (including non-cash goods) to individuals/households / Reduced absenteeism
  • Conditional cash transfers (including non-cash goods) to individuals/households / Reduced absenteeism
  • Unconditional cash transfers (including non-cash goods) to individuals/households / Increased school enrolment (general)
  • Unconditional cash transfers (including non-cash goods) to individuals/households / Increased school enrolment (general)
  • Unconditional cash transfers (including non-cash goods) to individuals/households / Increased school enrolment (general)
  • Unconditional cash transfers (including non-cash goods) to individuals/households / Increased test scores
  • Unconditional cash transfers (including non-cash goods) to individuals/households / Reduced absenteeism
  • Unconditional cash transfers (including non-cash goods) to individuals/households / Reduced absenteeism