Policies and interventions to remove gender‐related barriers to girls’ school participation and learning in low‐ and middle‐income countries: A systematic review of the evidence

Key Information

Authors

Chuang, Erica K.; Psaki, Stephanie R.; Haberland, Nicole A.; Mensch, Barbara S.

Year published

2019

Study type

Working paper

Countries in analysis

  • Afghanistan
  • Bangladesh
  • Burkina Faso
  • China
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Ethiopia
  • Gambia, The
  • Ghana
  • Haiti
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Kenya
  • Lao People's Democratic Republic
  • Liberia
  • Malawi
  • Mexico
  • Nepal
  • Niger
  • Pakistan
  • Philippines
  • Sierra Leone
  • Turkey
  • Uganda
  • United Republic of Tanzania
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe

Subnational

The study is not subnational.

Participants

  • Girls in school

Population description

While the focus of the review is on girls living in low‐ and middle‐income countries as defined by the World Bank (2019), we do not explicitly exclude studies that include boys in the study population as long as the results for boys and girls are disaggregated. Studies that do not disaggregate results by sex will be excluded. (pg 10)

Participant characteristics

  • N/A

Analysis type

Meta-analysis / Systematic review

Intervention Description

Successful policies and programs are directly tied to the quality of the evidence informing them, but too often scarce resources are invested in education interventions that are not evidence‐based. Low‐ and middle‐income countries have made enormous progress in expanding primary school enrollment since the 1990s. Yet questions remain about the causes and consequences of continued gender gaps in school enrollment, progression, skill acquisition and school quality, as well as the best approaches to promoting broader outcomes like ambition, agency, cognitive ability and critical thinking skills. The goals of this review are to identify the variety of interventions targeting gender‐related barriers to girls’ schooling that have been evaluated, as well as to report on the level of efficacy these interventions and exposures have on improving education outcomes for girls.

Approaches and Outcomes

  • Construction/improvement of schools / Improved academic skills (literacy and numeracy)
  • Construction/improvement of schools / Improved critical thinking
  • Construction/improvement of schools / Increased enrolment in primary school
  • Construction/improvement of schools / Increased grade attainment
  • Construction/improvement of schools / Increased primary school completion
  • Construction/improvement of schools / Increased secondary school completion
  • Construction/improvement of schools / Increased secondary school enrolment
  • Construction/improvement of schools / Increased years of schooling
  • Construction/improvement of schools / Reduced absenteeism
  • Construction/improvement of schools / Reduced grade repetition
  • Construction/improvement of sex-specific toilets / Improved academic skills (literacy and numeracy)
  • Construction/improvement of sex-specific toilets / Increased enrolment in primary school
  • Construction/improvement of sex-specific toilets / Increased grade attainment
  • Construction/improvement of sex-specific toilets / Increased primary school completion
  • Construction/improvement of sex-specific toilets / Reduced absenteeism
  • Developing/promoting new laws/policies / Improved academic skills (literacy and numeracy)
  • Developing/promoting new laws/policies / Increased enrolment in primary school
  • Developing/promoting new laws/policies / Increased grade attainment
  • Developing/promoting new laws/policies / Increased primary school completion
  • Developing/promoting new laws/policies / Increased school enrolment (general)
  • Developing/promoting new laws/policies / Increased secondary school completion
  • Developing/promoting new laws/policies / Increased years of schooling
  • Engaging parents/caregivers of students or school-age children/adolescents / Improved academic skills (literacy and numeracy)
  • Engaging parents/caregivers of students or school-age children/adolescents / Improved critical thinking
  • Engaging parents/caregivers of students or school-age children/adolescents / Increased enrolment in primary school
  • Engaging parents/caregivers of students or school-age children/adolescents / Increased grade attainment
  • Engaging parents/caregivers of students or school-age children/adolescents / Increased re-enrolment in school among dropouts
  • Engaging parents/caregivers of students or school-age children/adolescents / Increased school enrolment (general)
  • Engaging parents/caregivers of students or school-age children/adolescents / Increased secondary school completion
  • Engaging parents/caregivers of students or school-age children/adolescents / Increased years of schooling
  • Engaging parents/caregivers of students or school-age children/adolescents / Reduced absenteeism
  • Hiring more female teachers / Improved academic skills (literacy and numeracy)
  • Hiring more female teachers / Increased enrolment in primary school
  • Hiring more female teachers / Increased grade attainment
  • Hiring more female teachers / Increased secondary school enrolment
  • Hiring more female teachers / Reduced absenteeism
  • Increased availability of learning materials / Improved academic skills (literacy and numeracy)
  • Increased availability of learning materials / Increased enrolment in primary school
  • Increased availability of learning materials / Increased grade attainment
  • Increased availability of learning materials / Increased primary school completion
  • Increased availability of learning materials / Increased school enrolment (general)
  • Increased availability of learning materials / Increased secondary school completion
  • Increased availability of learning materials / Increased secondary school enrolment
  • Increased availability of learning materials / Increased years of schooling
  • Increased availability of learning materials / Reduced absenteeism
  • Increased availability of learning materials / Reduced grade repetition
  • Informational interventions (e.g. returns to education) / Improved academic skills (literacy and numeracy)
  • Informational interventions (e.g. returns to education) / Increased enrolment in primary school
  • Informational interventions (e.g. returns to education) / Increased school enrolment (general)
  • Informational interventions (e.g. returns to education) / Increased years of schooling
  • Informational interventions (e.g. returns to education) / Reduced absenteeism
  • Sanitary product distribution / Improved academic skills (literacy and numeracy)
  • Sanitary product distribution / Increased enrolment in primary school
  • Sanitary product distribution / Increased re-enrolment in school among dropouts
  • Sanitary product distribution / Reduced absenteeism
  • School feeding / Improved academic skills (literacy and numeracy)
  • School feeding / Improved critical thinking
  • School feeding / Increased enrolment in primary school
  • School feeding / Increased grade attainment
  • School feeding / Increased primary school completion
  • School feeding / Increased secondary school completion
  • School feeding / Increased years of schooling
  • School feeding / Reduced absenteeism
  • School feeding / Reduced grade repetition
  • Sexual and reproductive health (including puberty education) / Improved academic skills (literacy and numeracy)
  • Sexual and reproductive health (including puberty education) / Increased enrolment in primary school
  • Sexual and reproductive health (including puberty education) / Increased grade attainment
  • Sexual and reproductive health (including puberty education) / Increased re-enrolment in school among dropouts
  • Sexual and reproductive health (including puberty education) / Increased school enrolment (general)
  • Sexual and reproductive health (including puberty education) / Reduced absenteeism
  • Social and emotional learning (SEL) skills building / Improved academic skills (literacy and numeracy)
  • Social and emotional learning (SEL) skills building / Improved critical thinking
  • Social and emotional learning (SEL) skills building / Increased enrolment in primary school
  • Social and emotional learning (SEL) skills building / Increased grade attainment
  • Social and emotional learning (SEL) skills building / Increased re-enrolment in school among dropouts
  • Social and emotional learning (SEL) skills building / Increased school enrolment (general)
  • Social and emotional learning (SEL) skills building / Increased secondary school completion
  • Social and emotional learning (SEL) skills building / Reduced absenteeism